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We are excited to present the 13th installment of MINAR Journal, featuring cutting-edge research and innovations within the field of applied sciences and technology.

We are thrilled to unveil the 13th issue of MINAR journal, a dedicated platform for exploring the frontiers of applied sciences and technology. Each article presented in this edition reflects a profound journey of research and exploration. Our team is excited to share this wealth of knowledge with our esteemed readers.

In the first article, "Morphological and Anatomical Studies of Calotropis Procera (Asclepiadaceae) in Iraq," Fatin H. AL-DULAIMI delves into the fascinating world of plant morphology and anatomy, offering insights into the characteristics of this intriguing plant species.

Next, Amjed Mohammed SHAREEF takes us on a scientific exploration of "Investigation of Shielding Parameters to Fabricated Shields from Polymer with Nano-Barium Oxide Materials." This study delves into the realm of polymer technology and its potential applications in creating effective shields with nano-materials.

The following article, "Touchard Method for Solving Nonlinear Volterra Integral Equation of Second Type," authored by Jalil Talab ABDULLAH, Ali Hussein SHUAA, and Hayder M AL-SAEDI, sheds light on an advanced mathematical technique for solving intricate integral equations.

Nihad ABDUL–LATEEF ALI and Dakhil Hasan ORAIBI offer valuable insights into the effects of adding alcoholic and nano-alcoholic extracts of Moringa Oleifera leaves to drinking water on the productive performance of laying hens in their article titled "Effect of Adding Alcoholic and Nano Alcoholic Extract of Moringa Oleifera Leaves to Drinking Water on the Productive Performance of Laying Hens."

Moving forward, Mutasim Ali Mohamed ELAGAB, Hytham Sameer ABDELATEEF, and Eldaw Ahmed MOHAMED present a study on "Personal Characteristics of Scavenging Chickens Holders and Their Behavior Affecting Chickens Rearing in Eastern Gezira State, Sudan," exploring the human factors that impact the rearing of chickens in this region.

In the realm of health sciences, Fatima Rammadan ABDUL, Mohammed Twfeek Abdul HUSSEIN, and Alaa L. ABDULLAH delve into "Bacterial Biofilm and Host Immune System," offering a comprehensive understanding of the complex interactions between bacterial biofilms and the immune system.

Technology enthusiasts will find "Design and Implement Video and Chat Application Using Mesh Network" by Muath Abdullah SAEED and Naktal Moaid EDAN intriguing as it explores the world of mesh networks and their applications.

The realm of medical research takes center stage with Ali Muhsen ALI and Amel D. HUSSEIN's "Data Modelling of LC/MS-Based Metabolomic Profiling to Compare Between Human Plasma and Urine Samples Associated with Beetroot Juice," providing valuable insights into metabolomics and its potential applications in human health.

Safety and security concerns are addressed in "Assessment the Safety and Security Requirements of the X-ray Clinics in Alazizia-Waste" by Thuraya A. ABDUL HUSSIAN and Naba A. ABAAS, a study that aims to enhance the safety protocols in X-ray clinics.

Medical practitioners and researchers will find Aamir M. Abed AL-GHAREEBAWI and Safaa Hussein ALI's article on "Study the Effect of Diabetes Mellitus (Type 1 and 2) on Complete Blood Count in Diabetic Patients" insightful, as it delves into the impact of diabetes on blood count parameters.

Antibiotic resistance takes the spotlight in the research conducted by Zheen A. ABDULLAH and Aisha K. Ahmed in "Screening of Antibiotic Resistance Between Biofilm Producer and Non-Biofilm Producer of Klebsiella Pneumoniae Isolates."

Afrah Turki AWAD and Kamal Jalal Tawfeeq ALBAZZAZ shed light on the "Numerical Investigation of a High-Temperature Energy Storage," providing valuable insights into energy storage technologies.

Dawser Hussain GHAYB explores "Estimation of Power Deposition in ICP Reactor," adding to our understanding of the power deposition process in Inductively Coupled Plasma reactors.

In the realm of natural products, Zainab G. HUSSIEN's "Chemical Content Study in Ganoderma Lucidum Commercial Products" offers a detailed analysis of the chemical components found in Ganoderma Lucidum products.

Abdullah Hameed SALIM presents an engaging study on "The Effect of the Interaction Between Two Mutations MSTN/T434C and CAST/T350C on Carcass and Meat Traits in Arabi Sheep in Iraq," highlighting the influence of specific mutations on sheep traits.

A significant health study conducted by Basheer Abd. NASRALLA, Nazar Sh. MOHAMMED, and Salwa S. MUHSEN explores the "Immunological Study of Human Papillomavirus Associated with Trichomonas Vaginalis Infections Isolated from Women with Cervicitis."

Layla Omar BABARASUL and Younis Thanoon YOUNIS delve into the "Influences of the Gain Coefficient on the Nonlinear Oscillator’s Dynamical Regimes of Mach-Zehnder Modulator MZM with Optoelectronic Feedback," providing valuable insights into optoelectronics and nonlinear systems.

Environmental concerns are addressed in "Using Satellite Images Classification to Estimate Water Level in the Southern Marshlands After the Floods Wave" by Bushra A. AHMED and Tabarak S. HASHESH, offering a valuable application of satellite technology for water level estimation.

Shifting our focus to construction, Jamal S. NAYYEF, Redvan GHASEMLOUIA, and Zeyad S. M. KHALED explore the potentials of "Employing Lean Construction in Iraq," emphasizing the importance of efficiency and optimization in the construction industry.

In the field of medical devices, Nawar Banwan HASSAN, Murtadha Mohamed KHATTAR, and Wisam Ali HASAN present the "Design and Implementation of ECG Device," highlighting advancements in medical technology.

Lastly, Maysaa Ali ABDUL KHALEQ and Najah R. HADI critically examine the "Impact of E-Learning in Pharmacy and Medical Education, Advantages, and Disadvantages of Its Adoption in Higher Education," addressing the changing landscape of education in the digital era.

We hope our readers will find these articles as enlightening and informative as we did. The collective efforts of the authors and the editorial team have made this 13th issue of MINAR journal an exceptional compilation of knowledge and innovation. Happy reading!