ANALYZING THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF HONEY BEES FROM VARIOUS SOURCES AND QUANTIFYING GLUCOSE AND FRUCTOSE USING HPLC
Honey is a sweet, sticky substance that is produced by bees after nectar and honeydew have been collected. This study was aimed to determine the physiochemical properties of native and imported honey in Iraq to evaluate the quality of various types of hone y. Physiochemical investigations of these samples were done utilizing AOAC protocols and assessed according to Codex Alimentarius Commission and European Union Council instructions. The moisture contents ranged from 15.16 ± 0.15 to 19.92 ± 0.67 %. Ash concentration of all samples was ranged from 0.42 ± 0.01 to 1.61 ± 0.09 %. The levels of pH in all tested honey samples were acidic and within the standard range. Saudi honey showed the highest free acidity values (49.51 + 0.18 meq/kg), whereas the lowest fre e acidity value was recorded in Turkish honey (21.71 ± 0.11 meq/kg). Electrical conductivity (EC) in the analyzed honeys ranged from 0.57 ± 0.07 to 1.26 ± 0.01 mS/cm. In both glucose and fructose, the highest average levels were recorded in the Iraqi honey sample where they reached (30.25 ± 0.05 and 40.18 ± 0.13 %) respectively, while the lowest content of both glucose and fructose were recorded in the Saudi honey samples (26.88 ± 0.07 and 36.23 ± 0.07%) respectively. For all of the samples studied, the estimated fructose to glucose percentage ranged from 0.51 ± 0.06 to 1.69 ± 0.09. Iraqi, Turkish and Saudi honey samples have greater HMF levels than Iranian boney, and the three samples were within the standard limit (not more than 40 mg/kg). Honey quality differed depending on geographical and floral origins, seasons, transportation, processing conditions, and storage time. The glucose -fructose ratio was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography
Keywords: Honey, Physicochemical properties, HPLC.